Before drinking water one has to be sure enough whether the water is pure or not. In absence of bottled purified drinking water, certain water filtration systems and methods are utilized to make water pure if it’s contaminated. Each of these methods and systems has some pros and cons.
Water purification or filtration is a common term that indicates any technique or method that is utilized to get rid of harmful contaminants and pollutants from water. Whichever procedure or technique is utilized to make water free from particles, residues, bacteria, and chlorinated flavor, can be termed as water purification or filtration.
Straining the water by using a filter to remove residues and chlorine is great for small level purification however, Reverse osmosis has proven to be the best option especially in the long run. Various other methods are also available to get pure and safe drinking water. You’ll get to know right after this article.
Check: Best Under Sink Water Filter
Types of Small Water Filtration System
Filtration/purification system usually comprises of:
Activated carbon-charcoal filter that either is a device or placed inside a pitcher or incorporated as a feature of faucet-mount water filter, UV light units, reverse osmosis, Water distillers. This term includes both small-scale home filters and large-scale municipal community water purification treatment plants.
Various kinds of filters are available in the market and the present situation of water you have is going to decide the type of filter to be chosen. If the existing water is not drinkable, then you definitely need a filter to remove harmful chemicals, bacteria, toxins, and pollutants from it.
Different water purification systems are discussed in this article to give you a better inside look of these filtration systems and their efficiency. Some of the filters are:
- Water purifier pitchers
- Refrigerator filters
- Faucet mounted filters
- Faucet integrated filters
- Countertop filters
- Under sink filters
A water filtration system doesn’t merely need to make the water potable by removing harmful contaminants but they are also assumed to eliminate chlorine taste from water. This, however, has led the manufacturer to take measures to make water more safe and pure. One should keep in consideration that every carbon filter has equal competence. They differ only in the infiltration layer or phases of filtration as well as the quality of the stuff used.
Water purifier pitchers
Pitcher water purifiers are very convenient to use. No need for installation yet you can achieve purified drinking water in seconds. This small water purification system is pretty similar to usual water pitchers with the exception of filling tanks and holding containers. The water is poured into the top portion which travels down gradually through the filter. The activated carbon filter is used most frequently in this water filtration system.
Filter replacement relies upon the brand & model you possess. However, it is recommended by the manufacturers to replace the filters at least twice a year. If you are using this filter frequently, then you may need to change these filters quite often.
Pros of Pitchers
- No installation needed
Cons of Pitchers
- Differ in size of pore and model.
- Filter efficiency is slow.
- Needs to replace filter regularly.
These filters are basic carbon filters that purify the water coming out straight from a refrigerator. Typically these refrigerated filters are NSF-42 certified which means they only help in removing chlorine and improves the smell & taste of treated water. Mostly built-in-filter is available in these refrigerator filter systems that provide water and are usually accompanied by automatic ice-maker.
Shelf life of refrigerated filter system
If a filter is not replaced regularly, it may hold contaminants and toxins which not only harm your health but also the refrigeration unit. The filter is needed to be replaced twice every year.
Pros of refrigerated filtration system
- Currently available with many brands
- Improves water taste
- Also apply to filter water intended to make ice.
- Convenient in use.
Cons of refrigerated filtration system
- Prompt filter replacement is needed.
This faucet water filtration system is a small water filtration system that is attached directly over the faucet. They usually utilize carbon base filters. Water supply can be controlled in a way that the provision of purified and unpurified water can be switched on & off.
Shelf life of faucet water filtration system
The filter is required to change every 200 gallons or within 4 to 6 months.
Pros of Faucet-mounted filters
- User friendly
- Both filtered and unfiltered water can be achieved from single faucet.
- No water wastage.
Cons of Faucet-mounted filters
- Less efficient as compare to others.
- Comparatively costly.
Faucet integrated system
Faucet purification system provides economical means to provide safe and healthy drinking water. The built-in faucet filter is provided with an integrated filtration system, unlike the faucet-mounted filtration system. It also needs installation.
Shelf life of faucet built-in filters
The efficiency of these filters is around 200 gallons which ideally needs replacement every 6 months.
Pros of Faucet integrated system
- The supply of pure and impure water can easily control by a simple switch.
- Readily available in stores.
Cons of Faucet integrated system
- Comparatively costly
- Requires installation.
Counter-top water filtration system
Countertop filters are engineered to be installed above the counter need nominal space. They are simple and efficient in providing safe and healthy purified drinking water.
Shelf life of countertop water filters system
The filter’s efficiency is around 10,000 gallons of water and on average, needs replacement twice every year.
Pros of countertop filters
- Easy maintenance.
- Budget friendly.
Cons of countertop filters
Not as efficient as other filters in removing contaminants.
Under sink water purification system
The under sink water filtration system provides filtration directly at the tap or refrigerator water. These types of filters provide coverage against a large number of contaminants, heavy metals, organic compounds, and toxins to provide safe and healthy drinking water.
Shelf life of under sink water filters systems
The filter replacement and shelf life are based on the type of under sink filter you are using as some needs replacement as early as three months whereas others can be replaced either once or twice a year.
Pros of under sink water filter systems
- Easy to use
- Long lasting filters
- Usually contain multiple stage advance purification process that ensures the removal of large proportion of toxins.
Cons of under sink water filters systems
- Needs installation
- Space needed to install
Whole house water purification system
This water purification system is designed to purify the water in the line that supplies water to the house rather than just purifying the tap or faucet water.
Pros of whole house water purification system
- Purifies all water coming into the house
- Treats hard water and removes organic volatile compounds
Cons of whole house water purification system
- Requires advance maintenance and installation.
Treatment techniques of filtration systems
The treatment techniques of filtration systems are as follows:
|Filters with Activated carbon||Eliminates organic contaminants that affect the flavor and smell of drinking water also effective against chlorinated by-products and pesticides.||Though efficient in removing heavy metals but doesn’t eliminate bacteria and nitrates|
|Ion-Replace unit||Eliminates minerals such as calcium and magnesium Some models have a tendency to remove barium and radium.||The ion-exchange resin may become clogged and lose its softening property if water posses oxidized iron.|
|RO unit||Eliminates nitrates, sodium, certain dissolved organic & inorganic compounds. Eradicates bad odor, flavor & color.||Incapable of eradicating all toxins.|
|Distillation unit||Eliminates certain heavy metals, bacteria, dissolved solids, many organic compounds, and certain radionuclides. Eradicates bacteria||Chances of bacterial colonization during stationary phases.|